Brain Aneurysm is an abnormal dilatation of a weak layer of a blood vessel leading to balloon dilation of a part of vessel wall in the brain.
What are the symptoms of aneurysm – Most of the aneurysms are silent till they rupture and cause sudden severe thunderbolt headache in the brain. This could be associated with sudden loss of consciousness and vomiting after the rupture. Sometimes unruptured aneurysms can also present with nerve deficits depending upon the site of the aneurysm.
What causes aneurysms – The exact causes are unknown but smoking, hypertension, obesity and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased risk. There are other factors like genetic diseases and lineage which have been associated with increased risk of occurrence of aneurysms.
How do you diagnose aneurysms – Once patient presents with sudden severe headache and its clinically suspected. CT scan brain will reveal “subarachnoid hemorrhage “. Ruptured aneurysms are one of the commonest causes of spontaneous subarachnoid bleed. With this high index of suspicion, CT angiogram or conventional angiogram can be performed on an emergency basis to identify the aneurysm.
What are the treatment options – currently there are two modalities of treating aneurysms- One is surgical clipping of aneurysm and other is endovascular coiling. Depending on the site and nature of aneurysm the choice of the procedure varies and for a lot number of aneurysms both options could be attempted. Endovascular coiling is relatively more expensive than surgical clipping.